High death rates in Republican south. Source.

Full site / Mobile. To Top or End. News & 2022 GMM & Categories. Global Marijuana March animated.gif 2022 Global Cannabis March and 420 map. US Republican states. It's not just cannabis prohibition.

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Share links: safer - safer cannabis - safercannabis. This article was written by Timeshifter. See: Drug war causes high U.S. incarceration rate. And: Republican-led drug war. And: Register and vote.

Click the images below to enlarge them, and for info.

10 marijuana myths exposed.

Marijuana access is associated with decreased use of alcohol, tobacco and other prescription drugs. 5 Feb 2019.

Cannabis is safer and cheaper. Especially if people grow it themselves, as is legal in some places.

Wikipedia: Alcohol and cancer. [16].

I just saved my liver by switching to medical cannabis.jpg
I just saved 100% on stress by switching to marijuana.jpg
I take pills daily.jpg
Ronald Reagan, 1980 campaign speech: "Leading medical researchers are coming to the conclusion that marijuana, pot, grass whatever you want to call it, is probably the most dangerous drug in the United States, and we haven't begun to find out all of the ill effects, but they are permanent ill effects. The loss of memory for example."

Marijuana Legalization in Washington State: One-Year Status Report. July 6, 2015. By Drug Policy Alliance. "New Report Finds Major Fiscal Benefits, Decrease in Violent Crime, No Increase in Youth Marijuana Use or Traffic Fatalities – And Massive Drop in Marijuana Arrests."

Happy cannabis. Alcohol black eye.jpg

See: Map and detailed list and info about US states that have legalized medical and recreational cannabis.

Fentanyl. 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people.jpg

Fentanyl. 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people. 50 times smaller than a lethal dose of heroin. Carfentanil and other Fentanyl analogs are even more lethal. Diameter of a US penny is 19.05 mm, or 0.75 inches.

Alcohol: 1 in 20 deaths globally

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One in 20 of all deaths worldwide due to alcohol, says World Health Organization. 20 Sep 2018. The Guardian. [92].

Alcohol versus marijuana. Alkohol versus marihuana.jpg

Tobacco: 1 in 9 deaths globally

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6.4 million deaths attributed to smoking tobacco in 2015. [93]. Out of 56.6 million deaths worldwide in 2015. [94][95]. That is one out of nine deaths actually, not one out of ten.

A recent study in the medical journal The Lancet found that, in 2015, 11.5% of global deaths (approximately 6.4 million people) were attributable to smoking worldwide, of which 52.2% took place in four countries: China, India, Russia and the U.S. The study used over 2,818 pieces of research identified through several sources, including the Global Health Data Exchange, World Health Organization, and International Smoking Statistics Database.

  • Smoking tobacco causes one in ten deaths globally, major new study reveals. By Sarah Boseley. 5 April 2017. The Guardian. "There were nearly one billion smokers in 2015, in spite of tobacco control policies having been adopted by many countries. That number is expected to rise as the world’s population expands. One in every four men is a smoker and one in 20 women. Their lives are likely to be cut short – smoking is the second biggest risk factor for early death and disability after high blood pressure."

Tobacco: 1 in 6 deaths in USA

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has this data: 480,000 deaths attributed to tobacco smoking in the USA yearly. Out of 2.8 million deaths yearly in the USA. That is around one in six deaths in the USA.

Deep Breath. Nurse shares horrifying video showing what smoking is REALLY doing to your lungs. By Lizzie Parry, May 4, 2018. The Sun. "The footage shows a healthy pair of lungs next to a disease-riddled set from someone who smoked a pack of fags a day".

E-cigarettes lower cancer rates

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See e-cigarettes and the many subarticles on Wikipedia. Harm reduction taking hold concerning tobacco.

Smoking numbers hit new low as Britons turn to vaping to help quit cigarettes. By Sarah Boseley. 7 March 2017. The Guardian. And: E-cigarettes should be offered to smokers, say doctors - BBC News. [96]. By Michelle Roberts. 28 April 2016. BBC News.

US cancer death rate sees largest-ever single-year drop, report says. By Audrey McNamara, Jan 8, 2020. CBS News. Article quote with emphasis added:

new report from the American Cancer Society. ... "This steady progress is largely due to reductions in smoking [tobacco with hundreds of additives, many proven to cause cancer] and subsequent declines in lung cancer mortality, which have accelerated in recent years," reads the report. ... The American Cancer Society has said e-cigarettes are "likely to be significantly less harmful for adults than smoking regular cigarettes,"

Cannabis vs opioids & Big Pharma drugs

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19 Mar 2019: Eli Lilly’s Hazy Memory – Indianapolis Monthly. "At a farm in Greenfield, it grew 156 acres of marijuana during the early decades of the 20th century."

22 Feb 2018. Do medical marijuana laws reduce opioid overdoses? A new study adds a layer of nuance. By John Ingold. The Denver Post. "First, it confirms the results of a groundbreaking 2014 study that found states with medical marijuana laws have lower rates of fatal opioid overdoses. The connection was most dramatic, the new study concludes, in states that allowed dispensaries. ... And, a study last year using preliminary data found that Colorado experienced a 'reversal' [6% decline] in opioid overdoses after legal [recreational] sales began."

Science Calls Out Jeff Sessions on Medical Marijuana and the "Historic Drug Epidemic". 23. Scientific American. June 14, 2017. And: Medical Marijuana Legalization Associated With Fewer Opioid Hospitalizations. By Steve Elliott, March 9, 2017. And: Big Pharma Shaking in Their Boots as 80% of Cannabis Users Give Up Prescriptions Pills for Pot. Jan. 8, 2016. And: Medical marijuana users are using fewer prescription drugs or outright replacing them with medical pot. A comical meme sums up why. 2. July 7, 2016.
  • See also the sections farther down on pot versus pills and opioids.

Cannabis saves Medicaid money

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18 Apr 2022: Legalizing marijuana lowers demand for prescription drugs, study finds. "The reductions in drug utilization that we find could lead to significant cost savings for state Medicaid programs."

Tobacco versus cannabis

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Cannabis does not have the hundreds of synthetic additives found in cigarettes.

  • Cigarette chemicals.jpg
  • Thailand cigarette box warning

New Study: Cigarettes Tied To Increased Stroke Risk But Not Marijuana. January 2, 2017. And: Cannabis is less harmful than tobacco and the world is waking up to it. June 27, 2016 article. "A report from Bloomberg.com published in June 2015 stated that 29 percent of U.S. life insurers with official policies in place for cannabis users now class them as non-smokers."

Worth repeating: marijuana decreases risk of lung cancer. By David Downs on June 9, 2015. And it does not cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Cigarette Ingredients - Chemicals in Cigarettes. Tri-County Cessation Center: "The list of 599 additives approved by the US Government for use in the manufacture of cigarettes is something every smoker should see. Submitted by the five major American cigarette companies to the Dept. of Health and Human Services in April of 1994, this list of ingredients had long been kept a secret. ... While these ingredients are approved as additives for foods, they were not tested by burning them, and it is the burning of many of these substances which changes their properties, often for the worse. Over 4000 chemical compounds are created by burning a cigarette – 69 of those chemicals are known to cause cancer." See: Wikipedia: Tobacco harm reduction. See Marijuana habit not linked to lung cancer : IMNG Oncology Report: "The difference in risk is likely related to chemical additives in commercial cigarettes that aren’t present in most methods of inhaling marijuana smoke." See: Wikipedia: List of additives in cigarettes. See: Health problems associated with tobacco smoking. See also: Pot Smoking Not Linked To Breathing Problems; May Help Lungs. By Steve Elliott on March 6, 2013.

"In October 2008 the American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP) became the first medical organization in the U.S. to officially endorse tobacco harm reduction as a viable strategy to reduce the death toll related to cigarette smoking." [97] [98] Joel Nitzkin: "So if we can figure that the nicotine in the e-cigarettes is basically a generic version of the same nicotine that is in prescription products, we have every reason to believe that the hazard posed by e-cigarettes would be much lower than one percent, probably lower than one tenth of one percent of the hazard posed by regular cigarettes." [99] [100] |}

Diet and cannabis

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Cannabis Users Are Less Overweight Than Non-Users: A Study. Aug. 6, 2018. And: Study: Marijuana Use Linked to Lower BMI. 8 Sept 2016. And: Mediterranean diet rich in 'good' fats 'is the BEST way to lose weight'. By Daily Mail Online, 6 June 2016. The Doobie Diet: Cannabis Keeps You Thin. About a 31 Dec 2014 study. [101][102]. And: Study: Why Pot Smokers Are Skinnier. By The Atlantic, 15 May 2013. Ending the War on Fat [103][104]. By Time magazine, 12 June 2014. Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill. Book by Udo Erasmus (dangers of refined, high-temperature, solvent-extracted oils [105], trans fats, etc). See also: cold-pressed oil. And: Cutting Back On Carbs, Not Fat, May Lead To More Weight Loss. In NPR's All Things Considered, 1 Sept 2014. A Call for a Low-Carb Diet That Embraces Fat. By The New York Times, 1 Sept 2014. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight. By U.S. News & World Report, 6 June 2016. And: Woman Who Ate ‘Carbs All Day Every Day’ Drops 100 Lbs. After Eliminating Bread from Her Diet.

Diet soda is bad too: What happens one hour after drinking a can of Diet coke revealed. By the Daily Mail, 4 August 2015. See infographic [106]. And: Souring on Artificial Sweeteners: Substances May Boost Appetite. By Sara G. Miller, 13 July 2016, LiveScience.

This chart shows the annual death rate from sugary drinks per million adults in selected countries.

Annual death rate from sugary drinks per million adults in selected countries.jpg

Sugary Drinks Kill 24,000 Mexicans Every Year. By Niall McCarthy, Jul 15, 2015.

Sex and cannabis

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5 Oct 2018: Dagga (cannabis) makes sex feel better for women (The Journal of Sexual Medicine).
10 Sep 2018: New Studies Show That Marijuana Enhances And Increases Sex. Forbes.

World Health Organization report on CBD

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Wikipedia: Cannabidiol (CBD).

Some articles covering the 2017 report:

The full report:

Store cannabis in rubber-sealed jars

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As with any herb any rubber-sealed jar will work. Store in a cool location out of the light. The sealed jar maintains the humidity level. It also prevents the essential oils from evaporating away.

Make your cannabis last longer

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Put a flat lighter on top of your small pipe bowl after taking a puff. Let no smoke be wasted.
Buy a flat lighter, not a round one. Use a small pipe that you can sit down without it rolling over. Put in a very small amount of cannabis. Puff without letting any smoke escape at all. Take in some side air while you do it so you don't cough and waste smoke. Immediately put the lighter on top of the bowl to stop any smoke from escaping. It quickly stops the burning due to no oxygen, and no smoke escapes. Lighter will heat up very little due to how fast the fire goes out in the bowl.

Hold in the smoke as long as possible. No need to take in more than a few puffs if good pot. And be patient. Wait 5 minutes for it to kick in before deciding if you need more. Set the pipe aside since it will no longer be lit, and since you don't have to worry about it tipping over. This method will easily cut your cannabis use in half. Usually much more if absolutely no smoke escapes.

Don't breathe out the smoke all at once. Breathe out a little, and then breathe in some more air to allow you to hold in the remaining smoke even longer. Keep letting out only a little air, and breathing in air to replenish the oxygen in your lungs. Face-smile.svg People who try to cough and blow out huge clouds of smoke usually do so to impress their friends. They are ignorant, and/or have too much money to burn. Literally, money going up in smoke.

Other ideas:

Low dosing

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one new product in particular is spreading fast in mom circles: sublingual spray, a convenient, THC-infused ingestible liquid. ... it’s difficult to take too much sublingual spray. Since you can feel the effects immediately, it’s easy to tell when you’ve had enough. “The worst thing that can happen is you may feel overwhelmed,” she says. “Nausea, vomiting, paranoia, anxiety. These are symptoms of overconsumption. You cannot die.”

Using too much cannabis

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See article link and quote in the previous section. Vomiting is no fun, but you can not die from cannabis. See also:

Beginners should take it slow. Get used to low doses before increasing gradually to higher doses on another day. It takes around 10 minutes to reach the full high from smoking or vaping. It is very easy to do too much and get higher than you may want. Each stash of your cannabis can be wildly different in potency and effect. Experience with a particular stash is your best teacher. Go slow with the first try of a particular stash.

Cannabis tends to enhance whatever emotions you are feeling. So, to relieve anxiety or paranoia do something fun such as listening to happy music with headphones, or playing fun computer games. Get away from crowds until you are comfortable with a particular stash. Lie down. Keep a small trash can nearby in case you need to throw up. You may not have time to get to the bathroom.

Hyperemesis syndrome. Vomiting

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Wikipedia: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Some people can not use cannabis without vomiting. There are many medical conditions listed in the Wikipedia article that need to be ruled out. See the talk page for info on neem oil contamination:

Info is also needed on whether total abstinence is required, or what frequency of use is safe. Once a week, 2 weeks, monthly?

Neem oil or Azadirachtin

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One major culprit is Neem oil, or its active ingredient azadirachtin. The reader comments at the end of the following articles are especially informative.

As much as HALF of all cannabis, including in dispensaries, is contaminated to some degree with azadirachtin!
To control pests on cannabis plants, many home and industrial growers use neem oil, an organic oil excreted from neem (evergreen) trees to protect them from pest and mold infestation. ... Neem oil can be used as a pesticide/fungicide on cannabis plants, too, but only during the vegetative stage of growth. Once flowers start budding, all pesticide use should be ceased lest the product absorb into the flower which cannot be washed clean without washing away valuable trichomes, too.

Contaminants in pipes

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Don't smoke out of wooden pipes. Some have stains applied to the wood. Some have wood preservatives, water treatments, etc.. Some have been painted with lacquers, clear sealants, etc.. All of which will burn and go in your lungs. You may throw up, and in addition be sick and feel bad for hours.

Don't smoke out of plastic pipes either. Even with a screen there is enough heat to cause volatile chemicals to evaporate from the plastic. Even with silicone. Some silicone can handle oven baking temperatures. But not burning cannabis temperatures which are much higher. You may throw up, and in addition be sick and feel bad for hours.

Long-term damages could be anything. Look at the dangerous additives in cigarettes:

Contaminants in cannabis products

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Contamination of legal and illegal cannabis products.

4 Aug 2020: VAPI anniversary: Killer chemicals still on the streets. By David Downs. Leafly. From article:

The new Oregon rule would prohibit any “inhalable cannabinoid product” from containing non-cannabis-derived substances, including flavors, non-cannabis terpenes, and/or chemicals that alter a legal THC product’s “consistency, texture, or viscosity.” The non-cannabis ingredient ban seems likely to pass later this month. ... While flavors are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for eating, it’s “false and misleading” to suggest they’re safe to inhale, according to a July 24, 2020, statement by the Flavor and Extract Makers Association.

8 Nov 2019: CDC makes 'breakthrough' on vaping crisis, names vitamin E oil as potential culprit.
6 Sep 2019: Vape Cart Additive Makers Pull Products as Others Go Dark. By David Downs, Leafly.
30 Aug 2019: Vape Pen Lung Disease Has Insiders Eyeing Misuse of New Additives. By David Downs, Leafly. From the article, another reason to get high-quality temperature-controlled vape carts:

“The thing about some vape carts is the temperature can run considerably higher than burning flower, and you could be forming new chemicals that you would have never gotten before,” he told Leafly.

16 Aug 2019: Illicit Cannabis Vape Carts Hospitalized 7 in California, Doctors Say. By David Downs, Leafly. From the end of the article (emphasis added): "David Downs directs news and lifestyle coverage as the California Bureau Chief for Leafly.com. He's written for WIRED, Rolling Stone and Billboard, and is the former cannabis editor of the San Francisco Chronicle, as well as the author of several cannabis books including 'Marijuana Harvest' by Ed Rosenthal and David Downs." From Leafly Wikipedia article: "Leafly is the largest cannabis website in the world, with over 15 million monthly visitors and 40 million page views across its website and mobile applications." From the article (emphasis added):

California leads legalization states in requiring all products sold at licensed stores to be tested for dozens of contaminants—most notably pesticides, residual solvents like hexane, and heavy metals like lead.

But with untested products, said Wurzer, a wide variety of allergens, irritants, and toxins could lurk inside.

After lab testing became mandatory in California in 2018, hundreds of products were flagged. To date, more than 5,169 batches have failed state lab testing for labeling or impurity standards. After inaccurate labeling, pesticides have been the biggest culprit. Lead has also popped up in cartridges.

You may wonder if someone added something to the pot. In the past pesticides (such as paraquat, glyphosate and 2,4-D) have been sprayed by the US and Mexican governments on fields of marijuana in Mexico and the USA.

Snopes.com says "There have been no confirmed incidents in which fentanyl has ever been conclusively detected in marijuana samples." 26 Sep 2017 article. This info may be out of date. I have read some stories of fentanyl being confirmed as being in some marijuana. Very rare though. And very questionable:

29 Mar 2019: The White House And Federal Scientists Are Pushing The Myth That Marijuana Is Laced With Fentanyl. By Dan Vergano. BuzzFeed. From the article:

But fentanyl hasn’t shown up in any marijuana seized by the Drug Enforcement Administration, the agency’s Jill Head, a senior chemist, confirmed earlier this month at a National Drug Early Warning System briefing. ...

The mistaken police reports might have come from weed that tested positive for fentanyl on ultrasensitive test strips that can detect the drug at concentrations as low as one-billionth of a gram. Weed handled by dealers and people who might use all sorts of drugs will likely have trace amounts of fentanyl, similar to the way that studies have found US currency widely contaminated by cocaine. “The positive samples are from levels of contamination that are not clinically meaningful,” Ciccarone said. "They are not felt by the person."

The other evidence of cross contamination comes from toxicology tests on people who died of an overdose. That isn’t a sign of drug dealers purposefully adding fentanyl to marijuana, but rather that many drug users take all kinds of drugs.

If you seriously believe the cannabis is contaminated, or if you have done some dangerous drugs in addition to the cannabis, then call 911, or have someone take you to the emergency room or urgent care. You will not be arrested there.

Dangerous chemicals in e-cigs and vapes

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According to research published last month in the journal Frontiers in Chemistry, scientists found a slew of additives ... “these chemicals can create injury to the lung tissue,” wrote the study’s authors, researchers from Virginia Commonwealth University. ... The study’s authors analyzed 241 vaporizer products, including THC and CBD vaporizers as well as tobacco pods from manufacturers like JUUL and refillable e-juices. In these, they found 350 chemicals.

Vaping injuries and vitamin E acetate

Vaping-associated lung injuries can be attributed to vitamin E acetate, CDC says. By Nicole Wetsman. Dec 20, 2019. The Verge. "She stressed, though, that there may be more than one chemical causing these injuries. Not every patient with EVALI reported using THC-containing products, and not every tested product associated with an injury contained vitamin E acetate."

Template:Electronic cigarettes - see the many subarticles. Together they discuss the many chemicals added to e-cigs, and the toxic effects of many of them.

By the way, Vitamin E acetate is not found in nature. As always, one needs to dig down to the references used in the articles below. Various concerns and side effects are listed in the articles.

the finished products can contain traces of hydroquinone. ...

The best form of vitamin E when considering contamination concerns, is vacuum-distilled. ...

researchers found that tocopherol acetate alone caused tumors to form when injected, but tocopherol alone did not.

See the "depigmentation" section of the hydroquinone article for its toxic effects.

Finding toxic-metal-free vape pens

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Get vapes with ceramic heating elements, not metal:

4 Dec 2019: Toxic metal, leached from e-cigarette coil, permanently scars woman's lung. From the article: "Jones and his co-authors hypothesize that the metals found in the e-liquid leached from the heating coil in the vape pen."
23 Apr 2019: Michigan Officials Advise Testing Vape Cartridges for Heavy Metals. From the article: "Michigan regulators noted that no vape cartridges with ceramic heating elements had been found to be tainted with lead."
25 Jan 2019: California Cannabis Labs Are Finding Toxic Metal in Vape Carts. Leafly. From the article:

All vape carts made for the licensed, adult-use market in California after Jan. 1, 2019 should be lab-tested and contain less than 0.5 ppm lead. Look for “manufactured on” dates on the label. If you want to inhale 100% lead-free vapor, you should abstain from using cartridges until carts with lead-free metal start hitting California shores later this winter.

19 Feb 2019: Cannabis Cartridges Have a Heavy Metal Problem & It Is Worse Than Reported. From the article (emphasis added):

Robinson and colleagues conducted a lot of research “on different materials that didn’t flake under heat cycling.” ...

a product that doesn’t always vaporize and generally smolders or combusts the oil around the heating element, which can produce carcinogens and potentially other contaminants. Some higher quality disposable devices, such as the dosist pen, include a microprocessor to control the temperature,

Cannabis fights depression

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Study called "Cannabis-induced oceanic boundlessness". 30 July 2021 article:

Recent Study Finds Cannabis Aids Treatment-Resistant Depression And Alcohol Dependency. From article (emphasis added):

The study found that high doses of cannabis resulted in 17-19% of people with treatment-resistant depression and distress reporting experiencing “breakthroughs” for the better in their mental health. Psilocybin was still reported as offering more positive mental “breakthroughs” for people with treatment-resistant depression, 59% of respondents. ... The study defines this breakthrough or feeling of “oceanic boundlessness” as mystical experiences, which often proceed a change in mental health. These mystical-type experiences are measured by “unity, spirituality, and insightfulness on the 11-Dimension Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire or comparable self-report scales,” its authors say. ... In today’s regulations for every medical marijuana legal state, not one of them lists depression as a qualifying condition for a medical card.

1 in 6 US adults binge drinks 4 times a month

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Alcohol versus cannabis. US info

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It has not been proven that anybody has died solely from the health effects of cannabis use. See: Wikipedia: Cannabis (drug).

  • What's Worse for Your Brain — Alcohol or Marijuana? By Stephanie Pappas. Feb. 16, 2018. Live Science. "Hutchison said: Heavier alcohol use led to greater declines in gray matter and declines in the quality of connections in white matter. ... In contrast, 'we don't see any statistically significant effects of cannabis on gray matter or white matter,' Hutchison said."
Alcohol versus marijuana. Many photos.jpg
Right side, in clockwise order: Carl Sagan, Michael Phelps, Stephen King, Steve Jobs, Montel Williams.

1 in 10 deaths of working-age adults

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USA. 1 in 10 deaths of working-age adults are alcohol-related. (disease, overdose, car crashes, falls, violence, and more). 87,798 per year from 2006 to 2010. [107][108][109][110][111].

Multiply by 10 to get deaths per million people

From the Washington Post article linked just above the chart: "Last year [2014], more than 30,700 Americans died from alcohol-induced causes, including alcohol poisoning and cirrhosis, which is primarily caused by alcohol use. ... This tally of alcohol-induced fatalities excludes deaths from drunk driving, other accidents, and homicides committed under the influence of alcohol. If those numbers were included the annual toll of deaths directly or indirectly caused by alcohol would be closer to 90,000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention."

Secondhand drinking hurts 53 million

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One fifth of adults — or an estimated 53 million people in the United States — suffer from other people’s boozing annually, making this “a significant public health issue,” according to a new study published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Cannabis lowers college binge drinking

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26 Jan 2020: Legalization may mean more cannabis and less alcohol in colleges.

Domestic violence drops after pot decrim

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16 May 2019: Serious Injuries From Domestic Violence Dropped After Marijuana Decriminalization, Study Finds. By Kimberly Lawson.

Teen drivers have 3 times more fatal crashes

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Teen Drivers: Get the Facts | Motor Vehicle Safety | CDC Injury Center. From the article: "Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. teens. ... teen drivers ages 16 to 19 are nearly three times more likely than drivers aged 20 and older to be in a fatal crash."

Graduated driver licensing has been shown to greatly reduce teen accidents. [115][116][117][118]. Maybe we should consider graduated drinking licenses for alcohol modeled on customs in France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Italy, etc.. [119][120].

Texting and Driving Accident Statistics - Distracted Driving. From the article:

  • 21 percent of teen drivers involved in fatal accidents were distracted by their cell phones.
  • Teen drivers are 4x more likely than adults to get into car crashes or near-crashes when talking or texting on a cell phone.
  • A teen driver with only one additional passenger doubles the risk of getting into a fatal car accident. With two or more passengers, they are 5x as likely.

Why Pedestrian Deaths Are At A 30-Year High. March 28, 2019. Morning Edition. From the article (emphasis added): "Florida is considering legislation that would allow police to ticket drivers for any type of distracted driving, including petting your dog or yelling at your kids. That type of law exists in five out of the six New England states, which saw, overall, a 36 percent drop in [pedestrian] fatalities last year. Rhode Island alone dropped from 10 fatalities in 2017 to just four last year, a 60 percent decrease."

Oct. 2014 article: In California full marijuana decriminalization went into effect on Jan. 1, 2011, the report finds that "marijuana decriminalization in California has not resulted in harmful consequences for teenagers, such as increased crime, drug overdose, driving under the influence, or school dropout. In fact, California teenagers showed improvements in all risk areas after reform."

Texting. 6 times more accidents than alcohol

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Texting and Driving Accident Statistics - Distracted Driving. From the article:

  • Texting while driving is 6x more likely to cause an accident than driving drunk.
  • 1 out of every 4 car accidents in the United States is caused by texting and driving.
  • Nearly 390,000 injuries occur each year from accidents caused by texting while driving.
  • The National Safety Council reports that cell phone use while driving leads to 1.6 million crashes each year.

Teens and cannabis

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Cannabis exposure in adolescents and young adults is not associated with any significant long-term detrimental effects on cognitive performance, according to a systematic literature review published today in the journal JAMA Psychiatry.
Following marijuana legalization, teen drug use is down in Colorado. By Christopher Ingraham, 11 December 2017, Washington Post. And: No, legal weed is not ‘dumbing down’ the nation’s teens. By Christopher Ingraham, 29 May 2016. Washington Post. Twins study finds no evidence that marijuana lowers IQ in teens. By Emily Underwood, 18 January 2016, in Science magazine. And: Reefer madness debunked as major UK study finds marijuana does not reduce IQ in teens. By Eric W. Dolan, 14 January 2016. And: Study finds that teen marijuana use is not linked to issues of mental health. By Myron Castilloon, 5 August 2015. And: Teen cannabis use 'NOT linked to depression or lung cancer in later life'. By Madlen Davies, 4 August 2015, Daily Mail. And: No Link Between Early Marijuana Use And Health Problems Later In Life. By Angelique Johnson, 5 August 2015.

Marijuana and cigarette use by 12th graders

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Chart below is from a NIDA article. Text at the top was added later. Chart is for regular marijuana and cigarette use by 12th graders in the USA in the past 30 days. For cigarettes actual daily use is measured. For marijuana it is for use on 20 or more occasions in the past 30 days.

Green line is for marijuana. Dark blue/purple line is for cigarettes.

References: Miech, R. A., Schulenberg, J. E., Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., & Patrick, M. E. (December 17, 2018). "National Adolescent Drug Trends in 2018." Monitoring the Future: Ann Arbor, MI. Stats source is linked from the charts index. From footnotes: "Daily use is defined as use on 20 or more occasions in the past 30 days except for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco, for which actual daily use is measured." This particular footnote is for more than one chart. Smokeless tobacco is not measured in the marijuana and cigarettes chart. That NIDA chart is found in this NIDA article.

Legal states have no increase in fatal car crashes

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Guessing that it could possibly be due to the fact that some people are substituting marijuana for alcohol, and drinking less alcohol. So, though both can cause fatal car crashes, cannabis (by itself) causes far fewer than alcohol.

The findings, published in the American Journal of Public Health, ... The study concluded that "three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization."

Alcohol 10 times deadlier than cannabis on road

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"In a study published earlier this month in the journal PLOS-One, scientists at the University of Lyon [France] ... found that 'drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident,' when compared to completely sober drivers. Drivers under the influence of cannabis, by contrast, are 1.65 times more likely to be responsible for causing a fatal accident. ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ... study found that drivers with a blood alcohol level of .08, the legal limit in most states, were 293% more likely to be involved in a crash. Texting drivers were 310% more likely to crash."

Mandatory technology to prevent drunk driving

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31 Dec 2021: What if cars could stop you from driving drunk? A peek at the latest tech. From NPR. Excerpt:

"The recent infrastructure law included a provision mandating that, starting in a few years, all new cars must include some sort of technology to detect and prevent drunk driving."

Canadian legalization did not lead to more accidents

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Not from the article: It is not difficult to figure out why. Cannabis is much less impairing than alcohol. At high doses THC is most impairing the first hour after use. So just wait awhile if you really absolutely must drive. Then you drop down to borderline legal equivalent impairment to alcohol. Plan better, and don't drive for hours. Call a cab or Uber if you are too high and must get somewhere.

Suicide rates rise sharply across US

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1 In 3 Takes Meds Linked To Depression

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Other drugs versus cannabis

Marijuana is safer than peanuts.jpg

Return to top. The number of drug deaths has greatly increased since the graphic to the right was created.

USA. Tobacco deaths are now 480,000 a year. [121][122][123][124][125]. CDC: "In 2012, of the 41,502 drug overdose deaths in the United States, 22,114 (53%) were related to pharmaceuticals. In 2012, 33,175 (79.9%) of the 41,502 drug overdose deaths in the United States were unintentional, 5,465 (13.2%) were of suicidal intent, 80 (0.2%) were homicides, and 2,782 (6.7%) were of undetermined intent." [126][127]. 16,238 homicides in 2011. [128]. Aspirin number is actually for NSAIDs [129] (take with milk or antacid [130][131]). Peanut allergy deaths is more like 10. [132] Stat sources (all deaths): [133][134][135].

US timeline. Number of overdose deaths from all drugs.jpg

Charts above and below are from Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).]]

Chart below: "Drugs Involved in U.S. Overdose Deaths* - Among the more than 72,000 drug overdose deaths estimated in 2017*, the sharpest increase occurred among deaths related to fentanyl and fentanyl analogs (synthetic opioids) with nearly 30,000 overdose deaths."

US timeline. Drugs involved in overdose deaths.jpg

Note the huge increases from 2014 to 2017.

Drug overdose deaths in 2014 by drug.png

Above chart found in these two articles:

Pot versus pills

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Chart below is from: One striking chart shows why pharma companies are fighting legal marijuana. By Christopher Ingraham. July 13, 2016. Washington Post.

Fewer pills prescribed in medical pot states.gif

Cannabis versus opioids

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See previous sections too.
PTSD veterans. Cannabis. Pot versus pills.jpg

Where Marijuana Is Legal, Opioid Prescriptions Fall. April 2, 2018. Scientific American. [136][137].

Is Weed the Secret to Beating Opiate Addiction?1234. "I still use cannabis every day". Marijuana may be helping to overcome painkiller abuse in America.

Opioid overdose epidemic

Return to top. See also: Wikipedia: Opioid overdose. And: Wikipedia: Opioid epidemic.

Drug spoon at Purdue Pharma.

"Their efforts helped make opioids more American than apple pie: The U.S. — with 4% of the world's population — ingests 80% of its opioids, according to one of the lawsuits."

See gallery below, and more charts in this article: Wikipedia: Opioid overdose.

Drug induced deaths per million population, ages 15-64. By country.jpg

Chart source: "The chart above is based on updated data on drug overdose deaths in Europe from the European Drug Report 2017."

Chart below: Yearly US accidental overdose deaths per 100,000 population. Multiple by 10 to get deaths per million.

Accidental overdose deaths per 100,000 Americans.gif

Heroin fentanyl carfentanil. Lethal doses

Return to top. Wikipedia: Fentanyl. Wikipedia: Carfentanil.

There were around 107,300 US drug overdose deaths in the year ending January 31, 2022. 294 per day. Only around 30 to 55 per year in Portugal, a country with universal healthcare, and where all drugs have been decriminalized since 2001.

Source for first image below:

Heroin fentanyl carfentanil. Lethal dose comparison.jpg

Source for image below:

Lethal doses of heroin compared to synthetic opioids.jpg

13 July 2018: Notes from the Field: Overdose Deaths with Carfentanil and Other Fentanyl Analogs Detected — 10 States, July 2016–June 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

26 October 2018: Postmortem Toxicology of New Synthetic Opioids. - https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01210 - Frontiers in Pharmacology. From conclusion: "Postmortem concentrations seemed to correlate with their potency, although the presence of other CNS depressants, such as ethanol and benzodiazepines has to be taken into account."

US maps of drug overdose deaths

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See Wikipedia: Opioid epidemic. And see: Drug Overdose Deaths, a page at the Centers for Disease Control. See maps for various years. And see state by state list of data below each yearly map. You can also run your mouse cursor there over any state to get the numbers.

US map of drug overdose deaths per 100,000 population by state.png

Drug withdrawal in jail is very dangerous

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Call the doctor right away!

Kelly Coltrain.jpg

Kelly Coltrain

Cold turkey stopping of all opioids and other drugs at once is often deadly. And flat out overdosing requires immediate medical assistance. And some drugs like bath salts are often just various random poisons packaged as "bath salts". But apparently many jails and prisons have a license to kill through medical negligence. Even when there are hospital doctors right across the street:

3 Sep 2018: Woman lay dead in Nevada jail cell for hours after deputy found her unresponsive. By Anjeanette Damon, Reno Gazette Journal.

Why can't jail and prison staff give a user gradually decreasing doses of an opioid? A doctor could have walked over from the hospital across the street and prescribed it for her. Isn't this how hip surgery patients recovering in hospitals, nursing homes, and at home do it? And what about prisoners with broken bones recovering in jails? Not being a doctor, and not ever being a recreational user of opioids I do not know if this would have helped her not. Guards and many nurses are equally clueless. Especially if multiple drugs are involved. But no one gave a damn. No one called in the doctors. She even told the jail staff that she previously suffered from seizures during withdrawal.

Withdrawal, overdose, poisoning deaths in jails:

6 Oct 2018: Deputies Made Jokes About a Veteran Thrashing in His Cell Before He Died. New York Times.


Raw video Deputies mock man suffering from drug overdose (WARNING Disturbing)

4 Sep 2018: New Orleans jail staffers ignored dying man’s cries for help, lawsuit charges. By Matt Sledge, The New Orleans Advocate.

Opioids are deadly when combined with other drugs

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See Wikipedia: Drug overdose. See the "Causes" section for a list of the various drugs. More than one drug is often involved in an overdose death.

US. Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. See: synthetic opioids. [17].

US timeline. Opioid involvement in benzodiazepine overdose. [18].

US timeline. Drug overdose deaths involving antidepressants, by opioid involvement. [19].

Fentanyl kills with cocaine and meth

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13 May 2019: As the Opioid Crisis Peaks, Meth and Cocaine Deaths Explode | The Pew Charitable Trusts. [142]. Quote (emphasis added):

Three years into what epidemiologists are calling the third wave of the opioid epidemic — in which fentanyl has been involved in the vast majority of opioid overdose deaths — the lethal drug is now showing up in the bodies of nearly as many people who used cocaine and meth as those who used heroin.

Overdose deaths. Product of prohibition

Return to top. See Wikipedia: Harm reduction for alternatives worldwide.

During Prohibition, drinkers never knew what they would get when they set out to slake their thirst. Bootleggers often sold products adulterated with industrial alcohol and other toxins. Some 10,000 people were fatally poisoned before America gave up this grand experiment in suppressing vice.

Potency varies greatly day to day

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16 Jul 2019: Scotland records huge rise in drug-related deaths. The Guardian. From the article: “The major problem for Glasgow is heroin and illicit benzos like etizolam or street valium, which have never been cheaper or more available. People buy it online, in huge quantities, and unknown quality. You could take 10 one day and be fine, and the next day take the same amount and overdose.”

Dealers don't know what is in the mix

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But the turning point in Harford—and much of the country—came in 2015 after fentanyl, an opioid up to 50 times more powerful than heroin that is typically manufactured in illicit labs in China, started making its way into the heroin supply. Complicating matters is the fact that, by the time drugs get to Baltimore or Harford County, they have likely changed hands so many times—and mixed with fentanyl and other additives along the way—that dealers often don’t know what they are dealing. Indeed, the customary drug in Baltimore is 'scramble': an amalgamation of heroin and other drugs, sold in gel capsules.

Overdose Deaths Involving Opioids, United States. Deaths per 100,000 population. Multiply by 10 to get deaths per million people. Source.

Regional carfentanil overdose deaths

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Harm Reduction Ohio:

Fentanyl can not be mixed evenly

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19 Mar 2018: How much fentanyl will kill you?. Harm Reduction Ohio. From the article:

The invisible killer: “Hot spots”

Doses vary widely in illegal drugs. Even the same mixture can have inconsistent potency and include potentially fatal “hot spots.”

A “hot spot” is part of a mixture that has an unexpectedly greater amount of fentanyl. “Hot spots” are invisible and unavoidable in street drugs containing fentanyl.

“Hot spots” exist because of the chemical nature of fentanyl molecules: fentanyl cannot be mixed into or “cut” into an existing powder without leaving dangerous, unseen clumps of fentanyl. No matter how much you grind or stir or shake the fentanyl mixture, potentially deadly “hot spots” will remain.

Why is this? Brief science lesson:

A 50 microgram dose of fentanyl contains about 90,000,000,000,000,000 fentanyl molecules. Molecules are sticky and tend to clump together, like magnets do.

To equally mix 90 quadrillion fentanyl molecules with molecules of another powder requires an extra step — putting all the powder into a liquid, shaking up the liquid and then re-evaporating everything back into a powder. Shaking in a liquid is required to separate fentanyl molecules and eliminate hot spots.

This step is not done in illegal drug markets, so “hot spots” remain a serious problem.

Profits create more dealers nonstop

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"The average fatal overdose takes more than 40 man-hours for the county’s narcotics team to investigate, ... the process can seem futile. 'I feel like we’re just playing whack-a-mole,' he said, sounding exhausted. 'Sometimes you feel like you’re just banging your head against a wall—because somebody else is going to pop up and take that business.'

Internet pills. Mail-order death

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23 Dec 2021: Killed by a pill bought on social media: the counterfeit drugs poisoning US teens. Article: a flood of fentanyl-filled counterfeit pills being sold on social media and sometimes delivered straight to kids’ homes. ... it is being pressed into millions of pills that look exactly like traditional pharmaceuticals. ... tests conducted on the pills showed that two out of five of the counterfeits contained enough fentanyl to kill, ... social media, enabling young people to buy what they think are Xanax, Percocet or Oxycodone tablets from the privacy of their bedrooms. ... “Every drug you try now is a game of Russian roulette.”

FDA-approved drugs later banned

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Big Pharma and academic journals

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A paper published last year in the British Medical Journal examined how much money editors of the world's most influential medical journals were taking from industry sources. Of the journals that could be assessed, 50.6 percent of editors were receiving money from the pharmaceutical industry - in some cases, hundreds of thousands of dollars. ... Worst on that list is the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC), where 19 of its editors received, on average, US$475,072 personally and another US$119,407 for 'research'. ... "The medical profession is being bought by the pharmaceutical industry, not only in terms of the practice of medicine, but also in terms of teaching and research," said the late Arnold Relman, a former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in 2002. He passed away in 2014. "The academic institutions of this country are allowing themselves to be the paid agents of the pharmaceutical industry. I think it's disgraceful." ... There's also a push to get organisations to publish all valid results, even if they're negative.

Read the article for more info. and more links to reliable sources.

From Salt Lake City Telegram, May 20, 1949.

In fact, the heavy influence of pharmaceutical dollars inspired the former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Marcia Angell, to conclude, “It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines.”
Similar conflicts of interest and biases exist in virtually every field of medicine, particularly those that rely heavily on drugs or devices. It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Cannabis is cheaper

Drug company price fixing

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12 May 2019: Sweeping lawsuit accuses top generic drug companies, executives of fixing prices. On 60 Minutes. CBS news. From article: "But 1,215 generics, many of them the most prescribed drugs, jumped on average more than 400 percent in a single year. ... 90 percent of all prescriptions filled in this country are filled with generic drugs."

Beer, booze, cops, cigarettes, and Big Pharma. [20]

Drug prices. Canada versus USA

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Source and comments.

Billie Holiday on insulin

Return to top. See: Billie Holiday history, and drug use.

It's uncanny what she said. Insulin is practically a black market drug due to massive increases in prices by mafia-like price-rigging by the mafia bosses in the drug companies.

Billie Holiday on the drug war.gif

Full quote:
"Imagine if the government chased sick people with diabetes, put a tax on insulin and drove it into the black market, told doctors they couldn’t treat them, and then caught them, prosecuted them for not paying their taxes, and then sent them to jail. If we did that, everyone would know we were crazy. Yet we do practically the same thing every day in the week to sick people hooked on drugs. The jails are full and the problem is getting worse every day." -- Billie Holiday, from chapter 17 of her 1956 autobiography, Lady Sings the Blues.

Cannabis is an exit drug

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2 May 2019: Marijuana access is associated with decreased use of alcohol, tobacco and other prescription drugs. By Paul Armentano, deputy director of NORML. The Hill.

Crack cocaine and cannabis

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Scientific American:

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1898. "One of the Most Valuable of Drugs"

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2020. "Marijuana May Not Lower Your IQ"

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7 May 2020: Marijuana May Not Lower Your IQ. Scientific American. Article quote (emphasis added):

in Jackson and Iacono’s analysis [of the twin study], marijuana use and IQ were completely uncorrelated, and IQ measures fell equally in both the users and abstainers. Subsequent twin studies, including one performed with U.K. data by the Dunedin team, corroborated these findings of no relationship between marijuana use and a falling IQ.

1999. Institute of Medicine

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See image info.

Quotes in the image to the left (and in the text below) are from the U.S. government's landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. The full text of the report is available for free online at the above link, and is searchable. The table of contents by chapter is on the sidebar. The report is also available as a free PDF download. Quotes below are followed by their references. Emphasis added.

Page 109: "Indeed, epidemiological data indicate that in the general population marijuana use is not associated with increased mortality. 138"

- 138. Sidney S, Beck JE, Tekawa IS, Quesenberry CP Jr, Friedman GD. 1997a. Marijuana use and mortality. American Journal of Public Health 87:585—590.

Page 107: "When heavy marijuana use accompanies these symptoms [amotivation], the drug is often cited as the cause, but no convincing data demonstrate a causal relationship between marijuana smoking and these behavior characteristics. 23"

- 23. Chait LD, Pierri J. 1992. Effects of smoked marijuana on human performance: A critical review. In: L Murphy and A Bartke, Editors, Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Pp. 387—424.

Page 119: "There is no conclusive evidence that marijuana causes cancer in humans, including cancers usually related to tobacco use."

300 joints per month from US government

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Cannabis. Peer-reviewed studies, etc.

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Entourage effect

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13 Aug 2020: Is the cannabis entourage effect real? By Emma Stone. Leafly. From article: Additionally, this study of CBD by itself vs. an extract with the whole plant and CBD, showed that the whole-plant extract was just as effective at treating severe epilepsy, but with a 20% smaller dose, said Russo.

Which to choose: Pure CBD extracts or cannabis-derived CBD with some THC? By Mary Schumacher, The Fresh Toast. July 27, 2020. Chicago Tribune. From article:

But while CBD is the major player in treating an illness like severe seizures, it’s really an entourage effect that makes the CBD work. The entourage effect, for those unfamiliar, is that individual cannabinoids, like CBD, increase their efficacy when working in conjunction with other cannabinoids, like THC or CBN. This is true even when the presence of those other cannabinoids is minimal. ... In a study titled "Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy", the conclusion reads that, "There was a higher number of patients reporting improvement after using CBD-rich Cannabis extracts (318/447, 71%) than those treated with purified CBD (81/223, 36%), with valid statistical significance."

Cannabis and athletic performance

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Microdosing and cannabis

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Why Microdosing Is Taking Over Medical Marijuana. April 20, 2017. Rolling Stone. From the article:

"You repeat this process over the next few days," he says, "increasing the dose by small increments. When you reach a point where you feel a difference after consuming, you've found your minimal effective dose." At this point, he asks patients to continue raising the dose by tiny amounts. At some point, he says, there will be no further benefit from a higher dose. "You've established your therapeutic range, and can take the minimum dose."

Cannabis stores mean safer neighborhoods

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Philly420: Bombastic opposition to Mt. Airy cannabis dispensary is unjustified. By Chris Goldstein. August 22, 2017. From the article:

  • A 2011 study by UCLA found that more than 1,000 semi-regulated medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles were not associated with an increased density of violent crime or property crime in their neighborhoods.
  • A June 2017 article in the Harvard Business Review reviewed a massive set of data addressing dispensaries in “mixed-use” areas. Marijuana dispensaries and restaurants appear to help keep crime down when they are open for business.

Devastating Effects of Marijuana Legalization

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Devastating Effects of Marijuana Legalization. News reports.jpg

Reefer Madness

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SAFER. Marijuana is safer than alcohol

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Image info.

Right-click images below for image info and larger sizes.

Marijuana is safer than alcohol 2.jpg
Book. Marijuana is SAFER.jpg
Alcohol vs marijuana.gif

2005. Denver legalizes cannabis

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Featured group:

Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER)

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2006 Bush SAFER Colorado.jpg

No violence or hangover.jpg

Denver, Colorado. April 2012. See: Cannabis is safer.

Denver, Colorado. October 2006 billboard.

Marijuana no carbs.jpg

Much safer than tobacco smoking

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  • Front of a Classic Mild pack, sold in India, displaying the new pictorial warning.

  • The front of a 20 pack of Marlboro red cigarettes sold in New Zealand.

  • Graphic tobacco packaging warning messages at present.

  • Cigarette pack of L&M Blue in Singapore, a photo of heart surgery and a warning message were printed.

  • Brazil's third and current batch of graphic images, mandatory on all cigarette packs.

Presidents' views concerning cannabis

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See: Reagan's war on cannabis. And: Vote out most Republicans and their cannabis war.

Ronald Reagan, 1980 campaign speech: "Leading medical researchers are coming to the conclusion that marijuana, pot, grass whatever you want to call it, is probably the most dangerous drug in the United States, and we haven't begun to find out all of the ill effects, but they are permanent ill effects. The loss of memory for example."

Share link: Obama.

See longer article: Cannabis is safer.

Mitt Romney in July 2012 in New Hampshire 2.jpg

Obama on medical marijuana and drugs.jpg
Above quote is from Sanjay Gupta interview of Obama on April 15, 2015. Interview aired on CNN on April 19, 2015. [151][152][153].

Obama helped turn around the Reagan-Bush War on Pot, mandatory minimums, mass incarceration. See: US incarceration peaked in 2008.

Presidents alone can not reschedule it

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See main article: Presidents alone can not reschedule marijuana.

Neither the president nor the Attorney General can reschedule marijuana by themselves. [156] [157][158]. The two of them together also can not do so. See Wikipedia: Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. See "Process" section.

Since HHS (Health and Human Services) and the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) have again declined to reschedule or deschedule cannabis, then only Congress can do so. But Congress removed help for veterans:
Oct 2016: Republicans in Congress Won’t Let Veterans Access Medical Marijuana After All. [159][160]. And Congressional Republican committee leaders refuse hearings on CARERS bill to reschedule cannabis. See: Medical Marijuana Advocates Rally to Loosen Restrictions. By Alicia Ault. 23 Mar 2016. Medscape.

Vote out most Republicans

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See: Vote out most Republicans.


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