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See Category:Egypt for cities.


Hemp, cannabis, and medical cannabis in ancient Egypt[]

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Emphasis added to quotes.

From Ethan B. Russo, "History of Cannabis and Its Preparations in Saga, Science, and Sobriquet," Chemistry & Biodiversity 4, issue 8 (2007): 1614-1648:

Hemp fibers were found in the tomb of Amenophis IV (Akhenaten) at El-@Amarna, ca. 1350 b.c. and confirmed in two separate scientific analyses [95]. Cannabis pollen has also been identified from mid-third-millennium b.c. soil samples from Nagada [96] and in geological strata of similar vintage in the eastern Nile Delta [97]. More convincing yet is the finding of several pollen grains inside the mummy of Rameses II, who died ca. 1213 b.c. [98]. A photomicrograph (p. 163) seems to confirm this assignation, and not that of hops, Humulus lupulus, a European species not identified in Ancient Egypt. Samples containing cannabis pollen from another mummy has also been documented [99], ca. 100 b.c., during the Ptolemaic era.

Cannabis was used medicinally starting much earlier in Egypt. See the original Egyptian documents and translations:

"Cannabis is mentioned as a medication in the following ancient Egyptian medical texts: Ramesseum III Papyrus (1700 B.C.E.), Eber’s Papyrus (1600 B.C.E.), the Berlin Papyrus (1300 B.C.E.), and the Chester Beatty VI Papyrus (1300 B.C.E.). The Eber’s Papyrus is the oldest known complete medical textbook in existence. Most scholars believe that it is copy of a much earlier text, probably from around 3100 B.C.E."

From History of Cannabis. Ancient Egypt is this:

According to Lise Manniche [3] (a more modern-day Egyptologist) the following Egyptian hieroglyphs [renderings of hieroglyphs] pronounced "shm-shm-tu" or shum-shum-met or "sm-sm-t" [4] literally translates into "The Medical Marihuana Plant." Mention of this medicine is made in the following Egyptian medical texts:
  • The Ramesseum III Papyrus (1700 BC) ; British Museum of London - Plate A26
  • The Eber’s Papyrus (1600 BC) ; "University of Lepzia" Plates XCVI, LXXVIII
  • The Chester-Beatty VI (Medical) Papyrus (1300 BC): (British Museum 10686 sheets 6, 7)
  • The Berlin Papyrus (1300 BC) Sheet 7
  • The Hearst Papyrus (1,550 BC) ; University of California Berkeley Plate XII
  • The Vienna Papyrus 6257 (200 AD) Columns IX and XIV
  • And others


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See Wikipedia: Seshat and Commons:Category:Seshat.



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